Recently, the adsorption-based environmental remediation techniques have gained a considerable attention, due to their economic viability and simplicity over other methods. Hence, detailed presentation and analysis were herein focused on describing the role of biochar in oil spill removal. Oil removal by utilizing biochar is assumed as a green-oriented concept. Biochar is a carbon-rich low-cost material with high porosity and specific surface chemistry, with a tremendous potentiality for oil removal from aqueous solutions. Oil sorption properties of biochar mainly depend on the biochar production/synthesis method, and the biomass feedstock type. In order to preserve the stability of functional groups in the structure, biochar needs to be produced/activated at low temperatures (<700 ᵒC). In general, biochar derived from biomass containing high lignin content via slow pyrolysis is more favorable for oil removal. Exceptional characteristics of biochar which intensify the oil removal capability such as hydrophobicity, oleophilicity or/and specific contaminant-surface interaction of biochar can be enhanced and be tuned by chemical and physical activation methods. Considering all the presented results, future perspectives such as the examination of biochar efficacy on oil removal efficiency in multi-element contaminated aqueous solutions to identify the best biomass feedstocks, the production protocols and large-scale field trials, are also discussed.
A.M.P. Madhubashani, D.A. Giannakoudakis, B.M.W.P.K. Amarasinghe, A.U. Rajapaksha, P.B.T.P. Kumara, K.S. Triantafyllidis, M. Vithanage. Environmental Pollution, 288 (2021) 117676.
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