Toxic metals can be present in the environment, causing negative effects on the ecosystem and human health. Although several technologies have been used for decontamination purposes, biosorption is an environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternative to remove toxic metals from wastewater. Agricultural biomasses are a class of biosorbents that offer several advantages, including their low cost, availability in nature, simplicity to be obtained and used as adsorbents. This review article is focused on the use of agricultural biomass materials for the removal of toxic metal(oid)s from contaminated aqueous matrices. In addition, raw and modified forms of these biosorbents are considered as precursors for the preparation of other adsorbents like biochar. Following agricultural biomasses are discussed: i) watermelon, ii) potato, iii) cucumber, iv) peanut, v) almond, vi) walnut and hazelnut, vii) pistachio, and viii) tea waste-based biosorbents. The adsorption potential of the biomasses is exhibited under the optimum experimental conditions, and their characterization and possibility to reuse is also considered. Moreover, isotherm and equilibrium parameters of the metal(oid) adsorption by the biomasses are discussed. Specifically, thermodynamic studies are described in order to better understand the nature of the biosorption process between contaminant and biomass. All these considerations reflect the high potential of agricultural waste-based adsorbents for toxic metal(oid)s removal related to wastewater treatment technologies.
Ioannis Anastopoulos, Ioannis Pashalidis, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Dimitrios A. Giannakoudakis, Artis Robalds, Muhammad Usman, Leticia Belén Escudero, Yaoyu Zhou, Juan Carlos Colmenares, Avelino Núñez-Delgado, and Éder Claudio Lima. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 295 (2019) 111684.
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