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Waste into Fuel — Catalyst and Process Development for MSW Valorisation 



The present review paper highlights recent progress in the processing of potential municipal solid waste (MSW) derived fuels. These wastes come from the sieved fraction (∅ < 40 mm), which, after sorting, can differ in biodegradable fraction content ranging from 5 – 60%. The fuels obtained from these wastes possess volumetric energy densities in the range of 15.6 – 26.8 MJL1 and are composed mainly of methanol, ethanol, butanol, and carboxylic acids. Although these waste streams are a cheap and abundant source (and decrease the fraction going to landfills), syngas produced from MSW contains various impurities such as organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur, and chlorine components. These limit its use for advanced electricity generation especially for heat and power generation units based on high temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). In this paper, we review recent research developments in the continuous MSW processing for syngas production specifically concentrating on dry reforming and the catalytic sorbent effects on effluent and process efficiency. A particular emphasis is placed on waste derived biofuels, which are currently a primary candidate for a sustainable biofuel of tomorrow, catalysts/​catalytic sorbents with decreased amounts of noble metals, their long term activity, and poison resistance, and novel nano-sorbent materials. In this review, future prospects for waste to fuels or chemicals and the needed research to further process technologies are discussed.

Waste into Fuel—Catalyst and Process Development for MSW Valorisation

I.S. Pieta, W.S. Epling, A. Kazmierczuk, P. Lisowski, R. Nowakowski, and E.M. Serwicka. Catalysts, 8 (2018) 113; doi:10.3390/catal8030113.

http://​www​.mdpi​.com/2073 – 4344/8/3/113

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