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Catalytic Ketonization over Oxide Catalysts (Part XIV): The Ketonization and Cross-Ketonization of Anhydrides, Substituted Acids and Esters

2024-01-26

Abstract

A series of 20 wt.% MO2/S catalysts (where M = Ce, Mn or Zr and S = SiO2 or Al2O3) were prepared using various precursors of the active phases. The resulting catalysts were characterized using different methods (XRD, TPR and SBET). For the first time, anhydrides were used as potential starting materials for ketone synthesis.

This novel reaction was performed on various aliphatic anhydrides in the presence of catalysts within a temperature range of 523 – 723 K. For all anhydrides, except for pivalic anhydride, the appropriate ketones were obtained with good or very good yields. The vapor-phase catalytic ketonization of esters of benzene-1,x-dicarboxylic acids (x = 2, 3 or 4) with acetic acid were studied in the range of 673 – 723 K in order to obtain 1,x-diacetylbenzenes. Their yields strongly increased with an increase in the x value (0, 8 and 43% for x = 2, 3 and 4, respectively).

The presence of acetophenone as a side product was always noted. In the case of ω-phenylalkanoic acids, their vapor-phase ketonization with acetic acid led to the formation of appropriate ketones with 47 – 49% yields. Much lower yields of ketones (3 – 19%) were obtained for acids and ethyl esters containing heterocycle substituents (with O or S atoms) and/​or vinyl groups. In the reaction between ethyl 4-nitrophenylacetate and acetic acid, only the products of ester decomposition (p-toluidine and p-nitrotoluene) were determined.

by Marek Gliński, Małgorzata Gidzińska, Łukasz Czerwiński, Kasper Drozdowski, Ewa M. Iwanek (née Wilczkowska), Andrzej Ostrowski, Dariusz Łomot. Molecules 2024, 29(3), 584;


DOI: 10.3390/molecules29030584

First published: 24 January 2024 
 

Article link (OPEN ACCESS!):

https://​doi​.org/​10​.​3390​/​m​o​l​e​c​u​l​e​s​29030584

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